Medical Marijuana News

NEW THIS WEEK!!

 

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Best Friends Farm Super-Healthy Breakfast Smoothie

Check out our selection of flavored Tinctures, they are the perfect addition to any smoothie!

​The gang at Best Friend’s Farm has​ crafted the perfect smoothie that can be customized to your personal tastes, while helping to nourish you with cannabis goodness.

Our smoothie features tinctures (Made in America by Green Lotus)​ as the star which can help fight off inflammation and​ soothe a variety of medical conditions. The addition of hemp adds protein and fats to keep you nourished with all of the macronutrients you’ll need to give you that daily boost. Depending on what your body needs each morning, you can also add different kinds of leafy greens and fresh or frozen fruits. To me, the flavors never get boring!

The Wonder of Hemp Seeds…

Hemp has been deemed a bonafide superfood in the past few years as people have embraced its amazing qualities. Hemp is almost identical to cannabis, though it has a far lower quantity of cannabinoids, specifically the psychoactive one, THC. Hemp has been used just as long as cannabis to make products like rope and cloth, while more cannabinoid heavy strains were used as medical cannabis. Hemp and cannabis can be paired to create the ultimate breakfast smoothie that will help you power through your day filled with protein, fatty acids, antioxidants, and medication.

Luckily, hemp seeds are sold right next to flax and chia seeds in health food stores, we pick ours up at Trader Joes. The seeds contain all 9 essential amino acids, including high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are both essential to body functioning and contain lots of good fats. Hemp seeds are also packed full of protein, in just 3 tablespoons of hemp seeds there are 11 grams of protein and only 174 calories. They are also filled with trace minerals and dietary fiber to help keep you nourished all day.

Add The Tincture!

Our Best Friends Farm Smoothie can be made with your favorite tincture, these tinctures can be easily measured and blended into smoothies to help you get your daily dose of medication, allowing you to choose your strain each morning depending on what effect you need.

Here is the basic recipe, which you can easily ​customize based on what you enjoy!

Ingredients:

1/2 cup

​juice, water or ​liquid of choice (be sure to include some of the following: ​coconut water for electrolytes, kefir for probiotics, hemp milk or​regular ​milk for creaminess)

1 tbsp hemp seeds

1 tsp flax

​and/​or chia seeds

1/2 cup leafy greens (spinach and kale are great choices)

1/2 cup fruit of your choice (berries for antioxidants, bananas for potassium & fiber, citrus for vitamin C, pineapple or mango for sweetness, coconut for amino acids)

Your choice of cannabis tincture and according dosage

Other possible additions: collagen peptides, probiotic powder, protein powder are all great extra additions based on your preferences and goals!

How To Method:

You can simply place all the ingredients in a blender and blend, but I find that blending leafy greens with the liquid before adding the rest of the ingredients can assure a smoothie without small pieces of greens in it. Also, I love using frozen bananas (or avocados) in my smoothie because it creates a creamy and thick smoothie that reminds me of a healthy milkshake!

If you mix ingredients like berries and greens, you might have a slightly odd colored smoothie, so if you want a bright green smoothie stick to yellow and pale colored fruits to compliment the leafy greens. This makes about 16 oz.

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Best Friends Farm on KMIR News!

If anyone missed it, here is a link to our interview on KMIR News with Julie Chan. It was Julie’s first story since joining the news team at KMIR, welcome to the desert Julie! Stay cool and have fun in the sun!

– BFF

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California initiative draws fire for opening the door to TV ads that promote pot smoking

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Nearly a half-century after tobacco ads were kicked off television in the United States, an initiative in California would take a first step toward allowing TV commercials that promote a different kind of smoking — marijuana.

Proposition 64, which is on the November ballot, would allow people age 21 and older to possess and use up to an ounce of marijuana and would allow pot shops to sell cannabis for recreational use.

The initiative also includes a provision that could someday allow cannabis sellers to advertise their products in print ads and on digital sites and radio and television stations, but would “prohibit the marketing and advertising of non-medical marijuana to persons younger than 21 years old or near schools or other places where children are present.”

Television ads are not likely to appear soon, even if voters approve the initiative. There are other impediments to pot ads hitting the airwaves in California, including the fact that cannabis is still seen by the federal government as an illegal drug.

Still, the possibility that television commercials will some day pop up featuring people smoking marijuana has been seized on by opponents of the ballot measure, including Democratic Sen. Dianne Feinstein of California.

“It rolls back anti-smoking advertising protections we’ve had for decades and allows marijuana smoking ads in prime time, on programs with millions of children and teenage viewers,” Feinstein said this month in announcing her opposition to Proposition 64.

Health officials are also concerned. The American Heart Assn. of Greater Los Angeles has not yet taken a position on the initiative, but its board president, Dr. Ravi Dave, said it would be “tragic” if television was opened to ads for smoking marijuana.

We don’t want to see smoking re-normalized, and exposure to marketing and advertising does that.
— Ravi Dave, UCLA Health cardiologist
“We view marijuana advertising in the same light as cigarette and e-cigarette advertising — we don’t want to see smoking re-normalized, and exposure to marketing and advertising does that,” said Dave, a UCLA Health cardiologist.

In 1970, then-President Richard Nixon signed legislation barring cigarette ads on television and radio amid health concerns about tobacco causing cancer and heart disease.

Proponents of Proposition 64 say it includes rules to make sure the ads are not seen by minors, even going so far as to prohibit the use of marketing techniques that are appealing to young people, such as the use of symbols, music or cartoons.

“Concerns that marijuana ads are somehow going to flood the airwaves are the same tired scare tactics from the anti-marijuana opposition that were tried in other states and ultimately proven false,” said Jason Kinney, a spokesman for the “Yes on Proposition 64” campaign.

A key provision of the initiative says: “Any advertising or marketing placed in broadcast, cable, radio, print and digital communications shall only be displayed where at least 71.6 percent of the audience is reasonably expected to be 21 years of age or older, as determined by reliable, up-to-date audience composition data.” Colorado has a similar standard.

That provision is dismissed as “a joke” by Wayne Johnson, a chief strategist for the opposition campaign, the Coalition for Responsible Drug Policies, who said a study conducted by his group found that the standard would still allow marijuana ads on shows whose audiences include many minors.

“Proposition 64 would break a 45-year-old ban on smoking ads on television, including on programs with huge audiences of adolescent viewers like the Olympics, and ‘The Voice,’” Johnson said. “The initiative’s 71.6% adult audience threshold means almost every show on television will have ads promoting smoking marijuana.”

Kinney said the initiative does not roll back rules prohibiting tobacco ads. And the approval of the ballot measure alone is not enough to allow cannabis ads.

“The fact is TV and radio broadcasters are governed by federal, not state law, and federal law does not allow TV and radio ads for marijuana because it remains illegal under federal law,” Kinney said.

“In the far-down-the-road circumstance that such ads are one day allowed under federal law, we wanted voters to be assured that they would be governed by the same strict standards that are currently applied to alcohol ads,” he added.

The thorny issue was a hot topic on the agenda of a conference of the California Broadcasters Assn. in Universal City this month, where television station owners met with a representative of the Federal Communications Commission.

David Oxenford, a Washington D.C.-based attorney who represents broadcasters, said the ban on tobacco advertising has no direct impact on marijuana ads.

Recreational marijuana use has been legalized in Alaska, Colorado, Washington and Oregon, but Oxenford said the ability of broadcasters to run marijuana ads in those states is hindered by federal law. Marijuana is still classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency as an illegal, Schedule 1 drug, along with heroin and LSD.

“As broadcast stations are federal licensees, most have been very cautious about running ads for a federally controlled substance even where, as in Colorado and Washington, the state’s declared it legal,” Oxenford said.

He said the “ambiguous state of affairs” and questions about who will head federal enforcement agencies after the November presidential election have so far meant that “most broadcasters have been very cautious about accepting the ads, even if legal under state law.”

Keith Shipman, vice chairman of the Oregon Assn. of Broadcasters, said about 10 radio stations in Medford, Bend and Eugene have run marijuana ads, but he knows of no television stations that have done so.

One television station, ABC affiliate KMGH-TV in Denver, indicated last year that it planned to run marijuana business ads, but the decision was rescinded after managers at the station and its parent company, E.W. Scripps, said it appeared such ads would run afoul of federal law.

Sacramento FOX affiliate KTXL-TV ran ads for a medical marijuana dispensary some years ago, but has since adopted a policy of not accepting such advertising. An Arizona TV station has aired ads for a physician who refers patients to marijuana dispensaries.

Representatives of the Alaska and Colorado broadcasters associations said they are not aware of any television stations in their states that have run marijuana ads, and they have recommended that members not accept such ads.

“We discourage them from doing so because they are a federally licensed entity, and the federal government deems the sale and possession illegal,” said Cathy Hiebert, executive director of the Alaska Broadcasters Assn.

All that could change if federal officials follow the lead of states to shift the law. There is an active campaign to reclassify marijuana as a lesser drug, officials said.

If federal officials allow such ads, “At that point, it would not be different than alcohol ads,” said Joe Berry, head of the California Broadcasters Assn. “You could not target children or promote over-consumption.”

That scenario will be fully plumbed by the campaign against Proposition 64.

“A ban on tobacco ads has been a huge part of reducing smoking among minors,” Johnson said. “Why would we adopt exactly the opposite policy when it comes to smoking marijuana?”

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G-Pharma Labs Comes To Desert Pot Springs…

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High Do!

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California To Vote On Legalizing Recreational Marijuana

 

California voters will decide whether to legalize recreational marijuana after Secretary of State Alex Padilla said Tuesday that initiative proponents turned in more than enough signatures to place the question on the November ballot.

A successful vote in California would mean one in every six Americans lives in a state with legal marijuana sales, including the entire West Coast.

The initiative is promoted by a well-funded and politically connected coalition spearheaded by former Facebook president Sean Parker.

It asks voters to allow people 21 and older to buy an ounce of marijuana and marijuana-infused products at licensed retail outlets and also grow up to six pot plants for personal recreational use.

Smoking weed would remain off-limits in places where tobacco use already is prohibited, including restaurants, bars and other enclosed public places.

Sales of both recreational pot and medical marijuana initially would be subject to a 15 percent excise tax. Cities and counties would retain the right to prohibit pot-related businesses and to impose their own fees and taxes.

State officials estimate the measure would raise as much as $1 billion per year in revenue and reduce public safety costs — for police, courts, jails and prisons — by tens of millions. Provisions of the initiative, which requires a simple majority vote to pass, would direct most proceeds to covering regulatory costs, research on the effects of legalization, environmental mitigation, substance abuse treatment and other purposes.

It has drawn support from the California NAACP, the California Medical Association and the California Democratic Party. Sponsors are promoting it as a civil rights issue, arguing that minority communities suffer a disproportionate share of drug crimes and arrests. They also say the initiative would make it harder for people under 21 to obtain pot and easier for police to crack down on illicit sales than it has been in the two decades since California became the first U.S. state to legalize medical marijuana.

Opponents include the California Republican Party, the Teamsters Union and groups representing police chiefs and hospitals.

Cathedral City joins Desert Hot Springs as they move forward with the approval of medical marijuana dispensaries. (Dec. 21, 2014) Daniel Simon/The Desert Sun

California voters rejected pot legalization by 7 percentage points in 2010, two years before western states began liberalizing their approach to pot. Colorado and Washington became the first states to allow recreational sales in 2012, followed two years later by Alaska and Oregon.

Initiatives allowing for casual use have qualified for November ballots in Nevada and Maine.

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A Big Mystery Involving The Origin Of 4/20 Has Finally Been Solved

SAN FRANCISCO — Four decades after a group of California high schoolers coined the term 420, one of the holiday’s biggest mysteries has been solved.

Every April 20, stoners flock to places like San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park or the University of Colorado, Boulder, to celebrate the high holiday. There are many myths about why 420 became the stoner code of choice. Some (falsely) claim it’s because there are 420 chemicals in THC, marijuana’s psychoactive compound. Other popular origin stories link the date to Adolf Hitler’s birthday, the police code for marijuana possession or the date of Bob Marley’s death (which was actually May 11).

The real story, however, probably goes back to a group of high school friends in Northern California’s Marin County. Of course, nobody can definitively prove they were the first person to use the term 420 to refer to weed. But what these friends can show is almost as good: They have tangible evidence they were using the term earlier than anybody else can show, and they have a plausible story, with evidence behind it, to explain how they coined the term. That doesn’t necessarily mean that somebody didn’t use it earlier, as some have attempted to claim, but so far no evidence backs up the alternate explanations.

In 1971, a small circle of San Rafael High School students known as the Waldos (named, they say, for the wall where they’d hang out by the school), heard that a Coast Guard service member stationed at nearby Point Reyes had been tending a secret pot crop that he could no longer take care of. Armed with a treasure mapdrawn by the Coast Guardsman himself, the friends would meet after school — at 4:20 p.m. — to try to find the stash.

Week after week, the Waldos would meet at the school’s statue of Louis Pasteur, smoke a little pot, hop in Waldo Steve Capper’s car and make the 40-minute trip out to Point Reyes. They never did find the crop, but 420-Louis, and then just 420, became the group’s codeword for weed, something the friends could say in front of parents or teachers who weren’t in the know. The term slowly but surely spread beyond Marin, thanks in part to the Waldos’ ties to the Grateful Dead.

Read more on the Waldos and the story behind 420 here.

The Waldos, who revealed their identities to The Huffington Post in 2012, have enjoyed the minor fame that comes with inventing a counterculture holiday. Their story has appeared everywhere from High Times to the New York Times. They sell “420 Waldos” branded clothing on their website. Lagunitas Brewing Company even named a beer after the clique.

But the recent attacks on their story by skeptics or people claiming to have used the term earlier has galvanized members of the group to find a piece of evidence that had long eluded them. If they could find the Coast Guardsman who drafted the original weed treasure map, Capper reasoned, who could doubt them anymore?

LUCKY-PHOTOGRAPHER VIA GETTY IMAGES
Gary Newman was stationed at Point Reyes when he drew the treasure map to his secret grow spot.

But finding him was easier said than done. The friend who had initially given the Waldos the treasure map died in the 1980s. The Waldos also found the stigma surrounding cannabis use made it difficult to cold call people who might have had ties to the illegal grow spot.

Other leads were similarly fruitless. A tip from a HuffPost reader led the Waldos to a different Coast Guardsman once stationed at Point Reyes. Requests for help from the Coast Guardsman’s ex-wife went nowhere. Public records searches dug up a few clues, but nothing ultimately useful.

In 2014, the Waldos managed to track down some critical information, including the Coast Guardsman’s full name — Gary Newman — and place of birth. That information led them to San Jose, where some clever tactics involving a P.O. box got them closer than ever to their man. Capper even spoke to him on the phone, confirming he remembered everything from his Coast Guard days.

But meeting up with him in person proved to be just as difficult as finding him in the first place. Capper eventually decided to hire a private investigator, who was able to track him down in one of San Jose’s homeless encampments earlier this year. After several failed attempts at meeting up, the Waldos found a window of opportunity. Super Bowl 50 was about to be played in nearby Santa Clara, and the city planned to clear out homeless encampments ahead of the big game. The Waldos offered to put Newman up at a motel until the game was over so it would be easier for him to meet them and talk about his time in Point Reyes.

STEVE CAPPER
The Waldos pose with Newman, third from the right, outside a motel in San Jose.

After six years of searching, the Waldos finally came face to face with Newman in February 2016. Now 68 years old, Newman enlisted in the Coast Guard in 1967. While stationed at Point Reyes, Newman took care of the historic lighthouse. He had planted the now-famous pot crop on a patch of federal land near the lighthouse, and maintained the crop even after leaving active duty and joining the Coast Guard Reserves.

But in the fall of 1971, Newman grew nervous about getting caught. So, he drew up the treasure map and gave it to his brothers-in-law, Bill and Pat McNulty. Bill shared the map with Steve Capper, and the rest is history. Newman, meanwhile, never knew he was the inspiration for 420.

Following the motel meeting, the Waldos and Newman took a trip up to the Point Reyes lighthouse, where Newman reminisced about his time in the Coast Guard.

“It was like having a meeting with an old friend you never knew,” said Dave Reddix, one of the Waldos.

Finding Newman has given the Waldos the last piece of evidence they needed to verify their 420 origin story.

“We really wanted to find this guy,” said Reddix. “We wanted to slam the door shut on those trolls who said this is all a bunch of malarkey.”

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The First Big Company to Say It’s Serving the Legal Marijuana Trade? Microsoft.

As state after state has legalized marijuana in one way or another, big names in corporate America have stayed away entirely. Marijuana, after all, is still illegal, according to the federal government.

But Microsoft is breaking the corporate taboo on pot this week by announcing a partnership to begin offering software that tracks marijuana plants from “seed to sale,” as the pot industry puts it.

The software — a new product in Microsoft’s cloud computing business — is meant to help states that have legalized the medical or recreational use of marijuana keep tabs on sales and commerce, ensuring that they remain in the daylight of legality.

But until now, even that boring part of the pot world was too controversial for mainstream companies. It is apparent now, though, that the legalization train is not slowing down: This fall, at least five states, including the biggest of them all — California — will vote on whether to legalize marijuana for recreational use.

So far, only a handful of smaller banks are willing to offer accounts to companies that grow or sell marijuana, and Microsoft will not be touching that part of the business. But the company’s entry into the government compliance side of the business suggests the beginning of a legitimate infrastructure for an industry that has been growing fast and attracting lots of attention, both good and bad.

“We do think there will be significant growth,” said Kimberly Nelson, the executive director of state and local government solutions at Microsoft. “As the industry is regulated, there will be more transactions, and we believe there will be more sophisticated requirements and tools down the road.”

Microsoft’s baby step into the business came through an announcement on Thursday that it was teaming up with a Los Angeles start-up, Kind, that built the software the tech giant will begin marketing. Kind — one of many small companies trying to take the marijuana business mainstream — offers a range of products, including A.T.M.-style kiosks that facilitate marijuana sales, working through some of the state-chartered banks that are comfortable with such customers.

Microsoft will not be getting anywhere near these kiosks or the actual plants. Rather, it will be working with Kind’s “government solutions” division, offering software only to state and local governments that are trying to build compliance systems.

But for the young and eager legalized weed industry, Microsoft’s willingness to attach its name to any part of the business is a big step forward.

“Nobody has really come out of the closet, if you will,” said Matthew A. Karnes, the founder of Green Wave Advisors, which provides data and analysis of the marijuana business. “It’s very telling that a company of this caliber is taking the risk of coming out and engaging with a company that is focused on the cannabis business.”

David Dinenberg, the founder and chief executive of Kind, said it had taken a long time — and a lot of courting of big-name companies — to persuade the first one to get on board.

“Every business that works in the cannabis space, we all clamor for legitimacy,” said Mr. Dinenberg, a former real estate developer in Philadelphia who moved to California to start Kind. “I would like to think that this is the first of many dominoes to fall.”

Photo

Kind makes A.T.M.-style kiosks that facilitate marijuana sales.CreditElizabeth Lippman for The New York Times

It’s hard to know if other corporate giants have provided their services in more quiet ways to cannabis purveyors. New York State, for instance, has said it is working with Oracle to track medicinal marijuana patients. But there appears to be little precedent for a big company advertising its work in the space. It is still possible — though considered unlikely — that the federal government could decide to crack down on the legalization movement in the states.

The partnership with Kind is yet another bold step for Microsoft as its looks to replace the revenue from its fading desktop software business. On Monday, it announced that it was buying LinkedIn.

Microsoft has put a lot of emphasis on its cloud business, Azure. The Kind software will be one of eight pieces of preferred software that Microsoft will offer to users of Azure Government — and the only one related to marijuana.

The conflict between state and federal laws on marijuana has given asomewhat improvisational nature to the cannabis industry.

Stores that sell pot have been particularly hobbled by the unwillingness of banks to deal with the money flowing through the industry. Many dispensaries have been forced to rely on cash for all transactions, or looked to start-ups like Kind, with its kiosks that take payments inside dispensaries.

Governments, too, have generally been relying on smaller start-ups to help develop technology that can track marijuana plants and sales. A Florida software company, BioTrackTHC, is helping Washington State, New Mexico and Illinois monitor the marijuana trade inside their states.

Kind has no state contracts. But it has already applied, with Microsoft, to provide its software to Puerto Rico, which legalized marijuana for medical purposes earlier this year.

Twenty-five states have now legalized marijuana in some form or another, with Pennsylvania and Ohio the most recent. The biggest business opportunity, though, will come from states that allow recreational use of the drug, as Colorado, Oregon and Washington already do.

This fall, five states — including, most significantly, California — will vote on whether to join that club.

Mr. Karnes, the analyst, said he expected legal marijuana sales to jump to $6.5 billion this year, from $4.8 billion last year. He says that number could climb to $25 billion by the year 2020 if California voters approve the recreational measure this year, as is widely expected.

The opening up of the market in California is already leading to a scramble for the big money that is likely to follow, and Microsoft will now be well placed to get in on the action.

Ms. Nelson of Microsoft said that initially her company would be marketing the Kind software at conferences for government employees, but it could eventually also be attending the cannabis events where Kind is already a regular presence.

“This is an entirely new field for us,” she said. “We would have to figure out which conference might be the premier conference in this space. That’s not outside the realm of possibility.”

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No, legal weed is not ‘dumbing down’ the nation’s teens

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The marijuana policy landscape changed rapidly between 2002 and 2013. During that time, 13 states passed medical-marijuana laws, 10 states relaxed penalties for marijuana use, and Colorado and Washington became the first states to fully legalize recreational pot use.

Opponents of marijuana liberalization warned that these changes would bring devastating consequences, particularly for kids: “But what about the children?” was the common refrain. The president of National Families in Action, an anti-drug group, warned that commercial marijuana would “literally dumb down the precious minds of generations of children.” Psychiatrist Christian Thurstone, an outspoken opponent of Colorado’s marijuana legalization, argued in 2010 that “the state’s relaxed laws have made the drug widely available — and irresistible — to too many adolescents.”

Given the widespread liberalization of marijuana laws and huge changes in public acceptance of the drug, you might expect that by now we’d be seeing more marijuana use — and more problematic use, such addiction and dependency — among the nation’s teens. But in fact the exact opposite has happened, according to a new study from Richard Grucza and colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

The number of American teens with marijuana-related problems — such as dependency on the drug, or troubles with family and school due to marijuana use — fell by 24 percent between 2002 and 2013. The overall number of teens using marijuana fell, too. And the teens who do use marijuana are less likely to experience problems due to the drug.

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“We were surprised to see substantial declines in marijuana use and abuse,” Grucza said in a statement. “Whatever is happening with these behavioral issues, it seems to be outweighing any effects of marijuana decriminalization.”

Grucza and his colleagues analyzed data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual federal survey. Their research, forthcoming in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

“The reduction in the past-year prevalence of marijuana use disorders among adolescents took place during a period when 10 U.S. states relaxed criminal sanctions against adult marijuana use and 13 states enacted medical marijuana policies,” the study found. “During this period, teenagers also became less likely to perceive marijuana use as risky, and marijuana use became more socially acceptable among young adults.”

If legalization opponents are to be believed, these are all the ingredients necessary for an explosion in marijuana problems among the nation’s teens. So what happened?

In looking more closely at the data, Grucza and his colleagues discovered something interesting. They found that the number of adolescents experiencing a broad array of non-drug-related conduct problems — fighting, stealing, arguing with their parents — was declining, too. And so they divided the kids experiencing marijuana-use problems into two groups: those who exhibited marijuana-use disorders alongside other conduct problems and those who had marijuana-use disorders but otherwise experienced no other conduct problems.

They found that the decline in marijuana-use disorders was concentrated almost exclusively in the kids dealing with other problems on top of their pot use: “We observed a decline in the proportion of adolescents who both reported conduct problems and met criteria for marijuana use disorders. In contrast, the proportion of adolescents with marijuana use disorders who did not report conduct problems remained relatively constant.”

Researchers know that bad behavior and drug use often go hand in hand among teens. While the causality can go either way — bad behavior causes drug use or vice versa — a reduction in one usually accompanies a reduction in the other. So if teens are becoming better-behaved overall, it stands to reason that drug problems will decrease, too.

“Other research shows that psychiatric disorders earlier in childhood are strong predictors of marijuana use later on,” Grucza said in a statement. “So it’s likely that if these disruptive behaviors are recognized earlier in life, we may be able to deliver therapies that will help prevent marijuana problems — and possibly problems with alcohol and other drugs, too.”

Again, the research here does not at all show that liberalization of marijuana laws caused these reductions in teenage marijuana abuse. But it does strongly suggest that other factors — such as broader behavioral and mental health trends — are much more likely to drive changes in teen marijuana use than other factors, such as laws or attitudes toward pot.

Grucza’s study adds to a growing body of research showing that changes to marijuana policy have had a much smaller effect on teenage drug use than once feared. A paper published in Lancet Psychiatry last year found that passing medical-marijuana laws had no effect on teen marijuana use at the state level. Other large surveys of adolescents, such as the Monitoring the Future Study, find that in recent years teen marijuana use has been flat. State-level federal survey data shows little change in teen marijuana use, even in states that have legalized it for adults.

As a number of states consider marijuana legalization this fall, opponents are already asking: “But what about the children?” If the research by Grucza and others is any indication, the kids will be just fine.

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